This GearHead page was originally compiled around 2001 to 2005, using generously crowd-sourced measurements. Many of the companies listed (and the links to the contributors) have been gone for years (Hi Minolta!). The list is still hosted here but rarely expanded. If you’re really in doubt, just get yourself a new Big Godox or Tiny Fuji and be very happy. The old and flexible Contax TLA 360 can be had for a steal, these days.

Is your old flash unit safe to use on your new electronic camera?

Some older strobes (and infrared strobe triggers) use high voltages in the trigger circuit. For mechanical cameras, this is fine — but many newer, electronically-driven or digital cameras can be damaged by excessive strobe voltages.

How much is too much? What voltage might my own strobe generate? This page tries to help answer those questions. It contains a table of strobe trigger voltages, a few measured by myself but most contributed by readers of this site, along with some information about specific camera makes and the strobes that light them… first cameras, then strobes.

Camera Info (as of around 2005)

Canon US has verified (to me, and here) that the Powershot G doesn’t like voltages over 6V.

Similarly, Nikon has specified 12V for their speedlight circuits… (though reader Steve Francesoni called to check, and their tech rep said that his N80 was good to 250V — so there may be more complexity to this story). I’ve heard some rumours that some Coolpix models have been restricted to 5V! (see below for more details)

Marco Fortin-Metzgen checked with Olympus Europe on his C4040 — that digicam has a trigger voltage of 10V, so Olympus too recommends strobe triggering in the 3V to 6V range.

Pentax users may want to read this related story from Gene Poon.

Ron Alexander claims his Fuji is astonishingly tolerant of high voltages… interesting (This has since been verified by Rob Scrimgeour of the forum — their members got a message from Fuji also stating the 400V center pin limit).

(According to some opinions, high voltages can even endanger mechanical cameras, albeit after years of use)

The ISO 10330 specification (“Photography – Synchronizers, ignition circuits and connectors for cameras and photoflash units – Electrical characteristics and test methods,” 1992) says that all ISO-compliant cameras should be able to accept trigger voltages up to 24V. Though a Canon engineer is the nominal head of the ISO workgroup, for some reason Canon continues to insist that their cameras tolerate no more than 6V (make that Canon USA — an email from Canon Canada says: “There is not a maximum voltage requirement for the hot shoe terminal on the PowerShot G1.” Go fig!). For that reason I’ve tagged strobes that trigger at voltages between 6V and 24V as “Your Call.” Depending upon who you ask — the camera or strobe manufacturers — those strobes are acceptable or they are not.

The ISO spec doesn’t really seem to hold a lot of weight!

The Strobe List

The following list is based on either manufacturer specs or direct measurements (To measure the trigger voltage of your own strobe, follow the instructions here). If you can add to this list, mail me your numbers, along with a description of how you obtained them (measurement, from the web, from the manufacturer, etc).

While I have every reason to believe the information presented here is correct, I cannot be held responsible for the voltages coming from your flash equipment. Prudence is the purpose of this page!

Mfgr Model Safe Trigger Voltage
Achiever TZ250 Yes(?) A mere 0.5V (!), measured (with some due incredulity!) by Russ Kendall, Göran Samuelsson reported 8.5V on his test
  115 A/S Your Call A mere 2V, reported by “KC”, but 10.6V from Paul Turton
  TZ 250 Your Call 8.5V, also reported by “KC”
  260AF Yes A mere 3V, measured by Jeremy Tan, (Note this is not the Achiever 260T)
  DZ260 Yes A mere 3.4V, measured by Paul Achary, (Same as the Acheiver 260AF)
  260T No 220V, reported by “KC” and 253V from Mike Marty
  321AZ No 297.6V, measured by David Gonzalez
  632LCD Yes ~4.7, measured by Tanguy Kervahut
Agfatronic 2A No 185V-210V, measured by Juha Kopsa
  201B No 80.3V, measured by Oliver Karstens
  240B No 238V reported by EJ Boeve
  261CB No 64V reported by Stephan Kruisman
  280VB No 50+V reported by Amders Gidenstam
  383 CS Your Call 6.5V reported by Oliver Schrinner
  401BCS No 212V, measured by Martin Stein
  643CS Your Call 6.3V & 6.7V measured on two different strobes by Craig Schroeder
Albinar 90 MDT Yes (?) 3.2V, measured by Wirak Lim but without any luck using it with a G1
  100 MDT-Twin Yes 3.02V, measured by Richard Moore
Argus Automatic 9138 No 270V, measured by Rich Grochowski
Armatar 90 MDT Your Call 10V, measured by Tony Bonanno
Ascor, Light CD2400 Your Call 14.5V from WDFlannery
Balcar Super A2400 No 202V & reverse polarity reported by Bakó Imre
Bauer E528 AB No 253V, measured by “Grigory” in Belarus
Blacks DZ 40 Your Call 8V, measured by Rob Thacker
  TDZ 120 Yes 2.6V, measured by Paul Clements
  DM360BT Yes 4V, measured by David Treble
Braun Hobby No 225V, from Göran Samuelsson
  28 No 220V, measured by Ernst Albert
  32M Yes 2.56-3.56V, measured by “laaarrd”
  34 Your Call 11.7V, measured by Ted Coffey
  F34 No 160.55V, measured by Alan Buckbee
  38 M Logic Your Call 7.5V, measured by Panu L
  280BVC Your Call 13.6V, measured by Jean Taillon
  320BVC Your Call 6.7V, measured & reported by Lars Hanssen
  VarioZoom 340 SCA Yes 4.0V-4.3V, depending on battery type, measured and reported by Kai Ingman
  370BVC Your call 21.1V, measured by Hannu Martiskin, 20.5V from Göran Samuelsson
  380BVC Your call 11.6V, measured by Peter Savage
  400M Logic Your call 7.6V measured by Harmut Gruenhagen
  410VC Your call 21.4V measured by Stephan Bruckmann
  420BVC Your Call 11.6V, measured by Jean Taillon
  440VC Your call 16V measured by Ulrich Höxtermann
Britek AS-36 Yes 5.3V measured by Peter P
  SP 250 Monolight Your Call 6.7V measured by “Everett”
Broncolor Pulso 4 Your call 6.5-10.8V depending on the charge, according to Leon Obers
  one channel IR transmitter Your call 13.5V, per Leon Obers, Fred Phillips reported just 3.2V
Paul Buff, (White Lightning) Radio Remote 1, Transmitter Yes 4.84V reported by Bryce Turner
  Remote RC-1 Your call (same part?) 9.23V, measured by Jan C. Doddy
  UltraZap Yes 6V spec reported by Peter Timaratz, (though sync with G1 is dicey), Ed White reported varying results, from 4.8V to 13.3V on his Ultra Zap 800, according to the power settings
  Ultra 600 Your call 9.3-13.6V, measured by Bryce Turner on multiple units
  Ultra 1200 Your call 10.02V, measured by Jan C. Doddy
  10000 Your call 24.1V, per Toney Hall
Calumet (Bowens) PS No 30V according to Bob Atkin’sEOS FAQ
  Monolite 400 No 170V per Teemu Virtanen
  Traveller No 15V (EOS FAQ)
Canon 220EX, 380EX, 420EX, 550EX Yes All less than 6V (Per Canon and verified by Benny Khaw). These are the strobes specified by Canon for the Powershot, More info Here
  ML-3 Yes 4.99V measured by Kevin Omura, full power only — and wouldn’t trigger on the D30
  011A Your Call 16.9V measured by Derek Woodlands
  AB56 Your Call 7.8V measured by Bharat Mistry
  133A Your Call 6.1V per Gerardo Nieto
  155a Your Call 8.2-8.7V measured by Bart Harrison, (6.04V reported by Kevin Omura)
  166A Yes 4.33V per Kevin Omura
  177A Your call 6.77V per Ed Hahn
  188A Yes 4.1V per Gerardo Nieto
  199a Yes 4.99V measured - Canon rated it 6V
  200E Yes ~3.9V measured by Maarten Klap
  200M Your Call 12.3V measured by Tony Williams
  244T Yes 4.33-4.44V measured by Daniel Griswell
  277T Yes 4.8V measured by Dan Karg
  299T Yes 4.75V measured by Alec Hipwell
  300EZ Yes, (See Note) 3.6V, measured by Eric Jones. Sadly, Canon’s “EZ” and “EX” flash units use different TTL schemes. Despite the nearly-identical names, the “EZ” strobes (which use a system called “A-TTL”) can only be used as full-power-manual strobes with pure E-TTL cameras like the G1/G2 or the D30.
  300TL Yes 3.75V measured by Kevin Omura, (manual only)
  420EZ Yes, (See Note) 4V, measured by Joe Filer, 4.71V with a Quantum battery per Kevin Omura. (See note for 300EZ above)
  533g Yes? 4.95V measured by Pierre Hurtubise, but it doesn’t seem to fire…, Kevin Omura also reports G2 problems with this unit
  577G Yes 4.7V measured by Kevin Omura, and tested on a G2 (in manual and auto thyristor modes)
Centon FG20 No 275V, according by Mike Johnson in London
  MR20 Ringflash Yes 4.38V, measured by Geoff Kitt
  FG30 No ~200V, according by Harvey Shieff
  FG30DX Yes 3-6V, according by Iam Hill
  FH30 Yes ~4V, according by Steve Orton (who opened up his to disconnect the dedicated Ricoh pins for use on his Olympus)
  FH85 Yes 3-4V, according by Dave Anderton
  FH95 Yes ~5V, according by Philip Bennett
  FG105D Yes ~5-6V, according by Tom Sou — but, he also reported spotty performance with the newest EOS cameras (a polarity issue?)
Cinon Pro 1090C No 180V, measured by Göran Samuelsson
Chinon S-250, Zoom Yes 5.17V, reported by Scott Martin
  AF280 TTL Yes 5.3V, reported by “Mike from Germany”
  S-300 Your call 11V, reported by “emitc”
Cobra Auto 250 No 66V measured by Susan Stewart
  440AF Yes 3.5V, reported by Richard Lukey
  D650 Yes 5.6V, reported by Russell Garner
  700AF Yes 4.4V, reported by “John-M”
Comet CX244 No 11V (EOS FAQ) Tony Wu also called Comet’s distributor, who measured 11.5V for him, right there on the phone! (now that’s service!)
Contax TLA20 Yes ~4V, reported by Peter Dewdney
  TLA 30 Yes A trifling 2V, reported by Brad Grigor, (watch out for those extra pins…)
  TLA200 Yes ~4.11V, reported by EJ Haas
Courtenay ColorFlash 2 Your Call 17.12V reported by Charles Ward, (who reports problems using a Monolta 9xi — might be polarity?)
Cullman SL 16 Yes 4.5V, measued by Frank Gaehler
  SL28 Yes 4.3-5.2V, measured by Juha Kopsa
  SL 28/C[br>(same?) Your marginal call 6.3V, measured by Tom Crowning
  34 AF/C Yes 4.47V, measured by Oliver Karstens
  CX40 Yes 4.3-5.2V, also per Tom Crowning
  MD 34S Yes 5.92V, measued by Michael Neuhaus
  DC36 Yes 2.52V, also by Frank Gaehler
Digislave 2000 No 200V measured by Rich Scarlet
  3000 Yes 7V measured by Rich Scarlet
Dynalite Any Iffy? 10V (EOS FAQ)
Elinchrom (various) Your Call 9V these days, but back over 20 years they ran as high as 30V, according to Elinchrom Customer Service via Tony Wu
Falcon Eyes DE 250 Your Call… -14.5V, center negative; measuered by Martin Sørenson, who had no luck firing it from a 300D
Fuji GA Yes 3.52V, reported by EJ Haas
  FLMX29 No 216V, measured by “Tom on AOL”
GMI Infrared transmitter No 324V, measured by Sandy Levenberg, (just for IR?)
Hanimex TZ*2 No 225V measured by Simon Heath
  TZ36 Yes 4.6V measured by David Cox
  TX325 Yes 3V measured by Ulrich H&omlu;xterman
  CX440 No 180V measured by “Dave L”
  Pro 550 No 234V measured by R. Prieto
  TZ755CP Yes 4.5V measured by Mike Mahoney
  TS855 No 209V measured by Jonathom Holtom
  tZ2500 No 196V measured by Alastair Cardwell
Hensel Contra 500 Your Call 16.3V @10microAmps for all output ranges, as measured and reported by Jan de Vreij Dwingeloo
  Super Miniflash 500 No 41.2V per “Mike from Germany”
  2-channel IR trigger Your Call 17V per Teemu Virtanen
Hitacon Mini No 190V measured by BigWaveDave
Holgon 2800 HC Yes ~5.4V measured by Whay Lee
Honeywell Auto Strobolite 52 No 115V as measured and reported by Karl Haug
  Strobonar 892S Yes A tiny 1.25V (!?), measured by Neil Viglione, (who had to reverse the shoe polarity)
Ikelite Substrobe 50 Yes 5.28V from Harold Kroeker
  Substrobe DS-125 Yes 5.14V, also from Harold Kroeker
Image CBD-30 Yes 2.9V, measured by Ray Watson
  CZ-65 No 201V from Dave Stacey
  CBZ-2500 Yes 3V from “Kelvin”
Itorex 3000Tw Your Call… 23V, reported by Asle Feten
Jessop 220TBZ No 212V measured by David Aldred
  280ABZ No 70V measured by “TomCee” Cramer, 249V from Mark Butler
Kakonet 4500 No 210V measured by Aapo Tammisto
Kalimar 171A No 238V measured by Ted Coffey
  175A Your Call 4-5V measured by Michael Meissner, but 183V measured by Derek Misener…
  TW-3600 Yes 5.71V measured by Tom Altman
Kenlock TV45 Your call 10V measured by Barry Maufe
Kitstar 50BC No 160V measured by Greg Bloor
KMart Pro-700 No 229V measured by Bob Rinelli
Kodak Gear Auto No 222.1V, measured by Steve Spartz
  80030 (made by Tiffen) No 235.6V, measured by Jim Gatling
Konica Hexar HX-14 Yes 5.89V, reported by EJ Haas
  Hexar HX-18W Your Call 8.4V measured by Craig Schroeder
Leica CF Your Call 10-11V measured by Joe Lim
Lumedyne All Your call 12V since 1992, about 100V before, reported; DIRECT INFO FROM LUMEDYNE at the bottom of this page
Luxon 132 AFc Yes 1.23V(!) measured by Tarmo Pekola
Metz 20 B3 Nope 168V reported by Gerardo Nieto
  20BC4 No 185V reported by Göran Samuelsson
  20BC-6 Yes <5V per Metz-Werke, reported by Duncan Burt
  23BC4 No 183V reported by Frantisek Daniel
  28C-2 Yes <5V per Metz-Werke, reported by Duncan Burt
  30B3 No 170V tested by Jussi Ohenjoa
  30BCT4 No 68V reported by Peter Cooke &, 165V from Paul Nelson, 172V from Vic
  30BCT4i Your Call 7.4V reported by Jose Carlos Fernández but:, 173V reported by Göran Samuelsson
  32CT3 Iffy 22V with new batteries, reported by Rupert Vogl
  32CT4 Iffy 12V reported by Lwo v IJzendoorn
  32CT7 Yes(?) 2.88V, reported by Geoffrey Chan, 5.5V from “Mike in Germany”, and, 9.25V from Craig Lapp
  32MZ3 Yes 3.3V, reported by Samuli Vahonen
  32 Z-1 Yes 3.46V, reported by Johan K in the Netherlands, 4V from “KC”
  32 Z-2 Yes 4.086V, reported by Joe Lim
  34BCT2 No 211V, reported by Egbert Nolte
  36C-2 Yes 6V, reported by “Alex from Italy”
  36CT3 Iffy 20.9V, reported by Frank Melchinger
  38CT3 Iffy 6.5V, reported by Kai Dröge
  40AF-4C Yes 4.4V, reported by Robert Elsinga
  40MZ-2 Yes 4.74V, reported by Benny Khaw &, 4.5V from “Mike in Germany”
  40MZ3i Yes 4.5V, reported by Ismail Mus
  45CL1 Your Call 7.6V, measured by Jeffrey Gillian, (though Metz specs this unit at 6V, and assures us it’s EOS-safe — while recommending a better E-TTL unit for best performance with the 300D, like the 54 MZ-3)
  45CL4 Your Call 16.85-16.88V measured by Lee Phek Thong;, Teemu Virtanen measured 14V and, spoke to Metz directly about their newest G2 adapter
  45CT1 No 600V, (Göran Samuelsson measured merely 218V on his, as did Toney Hall — multiple versions?) – See this page for special info from Metz:,, main_index_e.php3?link=4&sub=1&linkname=mecablitz, (Thanks Mike Guidry for the tip on this one!)
  45CT4 Your Call… 14V with NiCds, reported by Peter Andersen, 25V measured by Frank Melchinger… (different editions?), and Anders Lilja reported 24.7V, but it dropped to a safe 4.56V when connected to the Metz Adaptor SCA311, 12.7V from “Mike in Germany”
  45CT5 Your Call 14.8V from “Mike in Germany”
  45MZ-2 Yes 5V
  50MZ-5 Yes 2.6V from Trevor Connell
  54MZ-3 Yes 4.17V from Paul Schuurmans
  56-1 No 211V from Woo Fei Wing
  60CT1 Your Call 20.89V measured by Loring Palleske
  60CT2 Probably Not 28.5 measured by Rupert Vogl
  60CT4 Yes 5V (EOS FAQ)
  202 No 200V according to Peter Sanders
  402 No 206V on this circa-1974 strobe, according to “ejb” from the UK
  404 No 80.2V from “Mike in Germany”
  2034BC No 207V from Ernst Albert
Minolta Auto 22 No 240.1 measured by Derek Woodlands
  Auto 25 No 210V measured by Steven Ferland
  Auto 28 No 200V according to Wes Quigley, only 43V from Gene West
  Auto 32 No 192V measured by Rob Babcock
  Auto 128 No 297V according to Ed White
  132PX Your Call/No 20-30V per Minolta Customer Service, courtesy Karen Wetterling
  132X Yes 2.2V per SJ Chandler
  Auto200X Yes(?) 2.9V per Brian Klug,, but 6.7-6.9V per W.S. Ryu
  Auto280PX Yes 1.8V (!) per Richard Crow
  Auto320X Your call 10.44V, measured by Thomas Whitehurst, but varying 5.4-8.9V according to Ian Hamilton
  Auto360PX Yes 5.24V per “Nahau”
  1800AF Yes A mere 1.88V per Lieven Blancke & Mark Ball
  2800AF Yes 1.74V, per Manuel V. Galang, 1.65V from Jeroen Haringman
  3500xi Yes 1.88V, also tested by Manuel V. Galang, who reported good manual success with his G2
  3600HSD Yes 3.5V, per Toney Hall
  4000 AF Yes 1.85-2.5V, per Mark Vinsen
  5400HS Yes 4.7V, measured by Hardeep
Minox FC35 No 131V reported by Poul Bekker-Hansen
  MF35 No 194V reported by Göran Samuelsson
  TC35 No 170V reported by Poul Bekker-Hansen
Miranda ZF-3 Zoom No 246V, measured by Rich Grochowski
  630 CD Your Call 8.14-8.30V, measured by Robin Taylor
  930 TCD Your Call 6.5V, measured by Tony Williams
Multiblitz Varilux 1000S Your Call… 6.5V, measured by Frank van der Pol
National, (Panasonic) PE-20S No 6.16V, per Akira So
  PE-170 No 120V, measured by Nelson Pomeroy
  PE-205 No 155V, per Mike Flynn
  PE-256 No 270V from Piotr Szuszniak
  PE-287S Your Call 8.3V measured by Kjetil Kling Ortveit
  PE-300 No 33V measured by Kari Monkala
  PE-380 Your Call 10.1V, measured by “Thierry”
  PE-387S Your Call 7.8V, per Alain Gleyzes
  PE-480 SG, Hammerhead Your Call 8.4V, measured by Les Lacey
  PE-3057 Your Call 10.44V, per Luigi
  PE-3550 Nope 32V, per Harry Malmelin
  PE-3557 Your Call 9.7V, per Robert Lee
Nikon SB-8E Iffy 21-28.4V, measured by Don Knull
  SB-10 Yes 5.11V measured by Danny Manchester
  SB-15 Yes 1.55, per Teemu Vertinen, a little higher (4.25V) for Paul Crane &, 3.4V from Jack McDermott
  SB-16 Yes 4.14V, per Harry Malmelin
  SB-18 Yes 4.6V, per Joel Elias
  SB-20 Yes 5.5V, per Nikon (via “Stuart”)
  SB-21B Yes 4.6V, per Bernd Pickahn
  SB-22S Yes 4.9-5.3V, per Leon Obers
  SB-23 Yes 5.2V & 5.5V on the units tested by Göran Samuelsson
  SB-24 Yes 3.8V & 4.4V, agains tested by Göran Samuelsson, 5.4V from Don Swanson
  SB-25 Yes 3.68V, per Colin Ethington, even less (2V) for Fred Phillips
  SB-26 Yes 5.4V measured on a matched pair by Dave Tinsley, only 1.4V per Andrew Cassino
  SB-27 Yes 4.42-4.50V, per Paul Johnson
  SB-28, and, SB-28DX Yes 1.5V, per Bharat Mistry a bit higher — 3.48V — from Patrick Hopkins —, Jeff Macwright got 2.8V from his SB-28DX
  SB-30 Yes 4.5-4.6V, per Jack Azud
  SB-50DX Yes 5-6V, reported by Nikon to Howard Forbes
  SB-80DX Yes 4.23-4.29V, measured by Dave Tewksbury
Nishika Twin Light 3010 Nope 307V, measured by Brian Lindley
Nissin Digislave No 200V measured by Juha Kopsa
  EF20 No 180V & 185V measured by Göran Samuelsson
  21-A Auto No 130V, measured by Hans de Ru
  26T No 227V, per David Peat
  28TX Your call 7.5V, per David Aldred
  280XP Your call 9V, per “BcBn”
  Auto 300Z Yes Only 2V, measured by Gary Wong
  340T No 190V measured by Eric Lejon
  360TW Your Call 10.1V-10.5V, per Samuli Vahonen
  360WX Digital Your call 10.5V, per Hannu Martiskin
  360X Your Call 10V from Woo Fei Wing
  2800G No 137V from James Tom
  4500 GTE Yes 4.6V from Bill Otto
  4800 GT Yes 4.55V using NiMHs, per Leon Obers
Norman 24/24 pack Your Call 11.8V measured by Phil Shima
  200B (Series 450) No 100V, measured by Steve Wise, though, Brian Leonard got only 29V…
  400B Your Call 10.25V, measured by Jan C. Doddy,, who found he had to flip polarity for it to function with his D-60
  Superlight 800 Your Call 14.15V according to Phil Shima, (who mentioned it blew-out the sync circuit.. in a Leica M6!?! (amperage? polarity?))
  P2000D Pack No 48V, measured by Peter (“gicleeman”)
Novatron M-500 Your Call 7.5V measured by Lonnie Harrison
  600VR Power Pack Your Call 12V according to Novatron, per Neil Lubin, Novatron will modify this pack to 6V for $15
  1000 Pack Your Call 9.8V measured by Pat Taber
Olympus T18 Your call 4.8-8.5V, measured by “Andy”
  OM T-20 Your call 5-7.4V as it charged, measured by Brian Zimmerman, only 2.6v from Greg Clark, who also, has a few thoughts about varying voltage results
  OM T-32 Your call 7.14V/8.4V, measured by J. Mark Morris/Russ Rosener, 9.5-11.3V from Tom Mac Inerney
  FL-40 Yes 3V, measured by Harry M. Fetterman Jr
  PS200 No 185V, measured by Stuart Lovell
Osram BCS25 Studio No 245V, according to Göran Samuelsson, 168V & 176V, measured from two different strobe units by Craig Schroeder (see below)
  BD25 Studio Yes 4.5V, measured by Craig Schroeder
  VS340 Yes 5.3V, measured by Craig Schroeder
  Sunny Boy No 188V measured by Craig Schroeder
Pentax AF-16 Yes 5V, measured by K.B. Lee
  AF160 Yes 3.8V, measured by Gary Schaker for his 300D
  AF200SA Your Call 7.65-7.72V, measured by Bill Miller
  AF200T, AF280T Your Call 7.8V according to Pentax, and reported by John Glover
  AF240Z Yes 4.8V, measured by Richard Hartland
Phoenix, Phenix BIF 82c Yes 6.0V, measured by Greg Clark
  D79-BZS Yes Around 3.5-6V, reported by Phoenix Corp, and checked by “Tom”
  BIF 82N Yes 5.5V, measured by Steve Spartz
  HMS-98T No 250V, measured by Justin Kuo
Philips 16B No 252V, according to Arnoud Brouwer
  18 No 218V, also according to Arnoud Brouwer
  25B No 65V, according to Theo Lumens
  P32GTC No 300V per Arnoud Brouwer
  P36CTL Yes 5.2V measured by Bernd Schumacher
  P36TLS Yes 4.3V measured by Arnoud Brouwer, and 5.64V from J.E. St-Laurent
  P536G Yes 4.37-4.81V, measured by Fritz Washburn, using Philips’s Canon A-series hotshoe
Photogenic AA-01A Your Call 10.3V per Jim Ngo
  DR-1250 Yes ~3-4V measured by Richard Davis, (mail signed “John Smith”?)
Popular 606 No 61-71V, measured by Harry Malmelin
Posso Multi, Dedicated, ATD 25 Your Call 6.8V, measured by Pedro Gordinho
Praktica B32LCD Yes 4V, according to Praktica in Dresden &, forwarded by Anton Haakman
  321A No 114V, measured by Jeroen Haringman
  1600A No 222V, measured by Jonathan Holtom
      Bauke Coperus points out that Praktica also relabels Achiever strobes
Prinz Jupiter 677TCB No 260V measured by Mark Salik
Profoto Compact Plus Your Call 23V for the 600ws unit, according to Loring Palleske —, which fits the 22-25V range reported by Profoto Customer Service and forwarded by Tony Wu
Promaster FM600 No 196V reported by “Tom on AOL”
  FM 1000 No 258V also reported by “Tom on AOL”
  FT1700 Your Call 6V according to Promaster, 207V as metered by Steve Seltzer, though “Tom on AOL” got 289V!
  FTD 5200 Yes 4-5V metered by Raymond Smiley
  FTD 5500 Yes ~5V metered by Mark A. Serfozo
  FTD 5750 Yes 3.95V metered by Jimmy Chancey
  5900 Yes 5.5V metered by Don Swanson
  FTD 5950 Yes 5.12V metered by Jim Horky
  7000M Yes 3.0V, measured by Dennis Yep
Promatic FTD 4000 Yes(?) 6.16V, reported by Tom Deluca
Quantaray PZ-1 Yes (also known as the SUNPAK 400AF), <5V, according to Harold Lacadie
  QB-350A No 130V, according to Joel Kiblen
  QB-SZ370 Yes 5.87V, according to Chris Joubert
  QB-350A No 317V/290V, according to Adam Miller/Neil Viglione
  QB-383 Super Yes 3.83V, according to Thom Doonan, who suspects it’s a re-labeled Sunpak 383
  QB-6500A Yes 4.3V, reported by Don Thompson
  QAF-6600 Yes 3V, reported by Francois Candela, 5.14V from Keith L. (Rupe) Rupert
  QTB 7500A Yes ~5V, reported by Mike Mantoudis
  QTB 9500A Yes 4.93V, reported by Larry Haas
Quantum QFlash T2 Your Call 8V, reported by “Joel,”, who also had a talk to Quantum about flash safety and EOS cameras, and Jan C. Doddy
  4 Radio Slave[br>(older?) Your Call 6.8V, reported by Jeff MacWright (who also had a 4i)</a>
  4i Radio Transmitter Your Call 8.45V, reported by “Lad”, 7.5V from Toney Hall, and 8.71V from Jan C. Doddy
  Radio Slave II Your Call 5-6V, measured by “Lloyd”, aka “Sparky”, 8.98V from Bryce Turner
Raynox DC-303 No 254V, measured by Mika Yrjola
Regula Variant 740-1 Your Call 13.4V, measured by Lukasz Wysokinski
Revue C35S Your Call 10.58V measured by DJ Szegecs
  C4500 No 230V measured by Fred Huttinga
Ricoh 323 Your Call 10.25V, measured by “Piotrek”
Rokinon 3600 Your Call… 24V, center positive; reported by Peter Ungar, who also reported that a Canon G1 wouldn’t fire it
Rollei 100 XLC Nope 325V, reversed polarity, according to Gerardo Nieto, &, 356V from Robin Taylor
  134B No 105V, measured by Olaf Ulrich
  Beta 3 No 116V, measured by Craig Schroeder
Sigma EF 430 Yes 10-13V, measured by Dennis Deblois, only 4.63V from Tom Helge Hjørnevik
  EF 500 Super Yes 5.9V, measured by Lou McLaughlin
Soligor MK-2 No 230V, measured by Rich Grochowski
  MK-24AS No 37-41V, measured by Michel Blanchet
  30DA Yes 5.25V, measured by Greg Clark
  MZ-400AF Yes ~4V, measured by Jouni Pekkanen
SP, Systems Excalibur 3200, Excalibur 6400 Your Call 8.4V, reported by Chris Rocca
  150 Yes 6V from Ted Coffey
  920MDLVP Your Call 8.4V from Ted Coffey
Speedotron D604 No 64V (EOS FAQ)
  D802 No 69.7V from Don Swanson
  1205CX No 60-70V per Speedotron customer service, and forwarded by Tom Bolton.<p> Speedotron makes a low-voltage afdapter, part #35248, with MSRP $36
  2403CX No 66V (EOS FAQ)
  2405CX No 70V reported by EOS Paul Chaplo, M.F.A. — whose dealer promptly put Safe Syncs on all their rental units
Spiratone, (Adorama) Spira-Lite Sr No 186.9V measured by Don Swanson
  SS600 AC No 219V from Craig Schroeder
SR, Electronics DSF-1 No 218V, reported by “Brian Z”, who also built this adapter
  Digi-Slave Pro Yes 5V, reported by SR Inc via Paul Parlee
  Digi-Slave Deluxe 2000 Your Call 15V, reported by SR Inc via Paul Parlee
  Digi-Slave Deluxe 3000 Your Call 7.8V, reported by SR Inc via Paul Parlee
Starblitz 16 M Slave No 170V, reported by Ray Huttenmeister
  200m-Quick No 237V, reported by Jeff Oldbean
  250 BAZ Your Call 6.8V, reported by Mark Brooke-Smith
  320 BTZ Yes, but… 5.66V reported by Dominique Dartois, but it won’t fire on a G2 — it actually turns off the flash circuitry in the camera! — though it functions on his mechanical Nikon F2
  1000-Auto Macro Lite (Ring Flash) Yes 2.9V, reported by Jarno Verhoeven
  2000BTZ No 254V, reported by Pasi Bergman, and 38.8V from Jaime Font Dominguez
  2200BA minitwin No 225V, reported by Ray Huttenmeister
  3200BT-Twin-S No 64V from David Cunningham
  3300 DTS Your Call 10.7V from Roland Karlsson
  3600 BTV Twin No 170V from Teemu Vertinen, 150V from Greg Clark
  3600 DS Yes 4-5V, reported by Bob Ghysels
  4000AF Yes slightly under 6V, reported by “Ed” & Peter Cooke
Sunpak Ringflash Your call 6.85, measured by David Dodell
  “Digital Flash” Your call 6.4-6.6V, reported by Geert Bosch,, 6.78V from Sandy Levenberg, (Though of course zero volts when used as a slave…)
  Remotelite II Yes 4.12V, reported by Jeroen Haringman
  MG-1 Your Call 6.99V, reported by Kai Zhu
  GT8 No 200V, reported by Marcos Schwindt
  DS20 Your call 6.2-6.63V, reported by Marco Paganini
  25DX Yes 5.46V, reported by Harold Kroeker
  Digi Robot 32 Yes 3.75, reported by Gary Hays
  GX14 No 160V, reported by Robert Rozee
  GX17 No 288V, tested by Jason Wiebe
  30DX Your Call 10.4V, measured by Ted Pembroke, 7.5V down to 5V for Mon Francisco, but Fred Phillips got a mere 4.6V
  Auto 30SR Your Call 6.4V, reported by Mike Richter
  Auto 36DX Yup 2.4V, reported by Fred Phillips, &, 5.86V from Bob Rogers
  Auto 36FB Your Call 15V, per Paul Nelson
  AP-52 No 144.8V, according to Kai Zhu, and, 188V by another netizen who sent a photo of his test rig, strobe, & reading…
  120 J Your call 11.01V-11.6V (depnding on the meter used), measured by Sandy Levenberg,, 10.9-11.6V reported by Bryce Turner with varying batteries,, but 24.3V by Toney Hall
  Auto121 No 155-215V, measured by Lawrence Yau
  Auto124 No 203V, measured by Simon Block
  Auto130 NO 200V, measured by “dhamant”
  MX130 No 190, measured by Göran Samuelsson
  134 No 43.5V, measured by Janne Rajala
  Sp140 No 180V, measured by Hjalti Jakobsson
  144, (144pc?) Yes… probably 5.8V, reported by Michael Kirby, 6V, reported by Martin B. Reinhardt, 6.8-6.95V, reported by Pierre Hurtubise, (Different batteries, or different versions of the same strobe?), 6.16V, per Sunpak (via Pierre H.)
  200 No 171.5V measured by Paul Lane
  Auto 221 No 173.5V measured by Robert VanTichelt
  Auto 221D Your Call 9.26V measured by Akira So
  Auto 222 Your Call 6.7V measured by Dean Glanville
  Auto 240 No 38V measured by “Didier” en France
  244D Your Call 7.55V measured by Dave Oshinsky
  Auto266SR Yes 5.7V measured by “Zapped”
  Auto322 NO 227V (Jay Lorenzana reported a mere 149V, after a thorough test of his unit)
  Autozoom333 Your Call 7.9V measured by Roy Campbell
  333D Yes A big 2.0V measured by Tom Troughton, 4.24V from Kai Zhu
  344D Yes Actually reported as less than 0.25V, by Adam Rubinstein, (though Tony Bonanno’s rated 4V)
  355AF Yes 5.36V, reported by “gpigg”
  383 Super Your call 3.74V, per Colin Ethington;, 3.83, per Curtis Avery;, 6.85V, according to Sunpak’s techs;, 6.86V per Geoff McKnight, 6.8V per Phil Shima using a Quantum battery, 7.05V per Jon Boehm, & 10.29V from Dave Dill…, different batteries, different versions, or…?<p> Joe Templeton measured 7.2V and had a reassuring talk with Sunpak
  Auto 388 Your Call 7V, measured by Göran Samuelsson
  Auto411 No 193V, measured by Nick Adams
  422 Your Call 10.75-12V, measured by “Wayne”, 6V from Kent Fulcher (or is the 422D a different model? Richard Khanlian also measured 5.5V for his 422D)
  Auto431 No 30-50V, according to Marcus Bletz
  433 Your call Reported at <8V
  433D Your call 7.8V, according to Jeff Tokayer &, 6.4V measured by Kristina Sterling, but only ~4V from Gerald Wang, who also noticed some variation when using alkaline versus NiMH batteries, while, Peter Yund got 14V
  444, 444D Your call 10.8V, according to Dave Grandeffo, who’s been using it for a couple of years on his, Coolpix950 without a hitch., Mike Flaherty got 11.49 and plans to use it on his D30, Harold Kroeker also got 11V with both Nikon and Contax adaptors
  Auto433AF Your Call 7.52V, reported by Wade Herman, (6.9V, according to Sunpak’s spec reported by Mike Dubrow)
  522 Your call? ?? 10.84V, measured by Charles E. Hunt III, but 170V reported by Martin B. Reinhardt and, 197V from Conrad Hoffman & 195V from “Adam”…, 22V from Ted Mishima — so be careful and check your strobe, there may be more than one edition of this unit out there!, Michael Foos checked with Sunpak, who reported “usually 190V.”
  544 Yes… 4.6V, reported by the mysterious “Tom”…, though 6.75V reported by Gary Hays
  555 Your call 6.67V on mine —, Ed White reported varying outputs from 4.1V to 6.9V., An email from Sunpak/Tocad assures me that no cameras have ever been harmed by a 555.
  611 Your Call 4V reported by Kent Fulcher, but, some old models will trigger at 190V, according to Tocad (via Jonas Lohr)
  622 Pro, (not Super) Your Call 8V reported by Lou McLaughlin, 6.5V from Don Swanson
  622 Super Your Call 8V, reported by Tim Brown
  888AFZ Yes 5.8V, reported by Franck Michaud
  1600A No 46.6V, measured by Andrew Hall
  Auto 2000 DZ Yes 3V, measured by Ken Kane
  2600 No 73V, measured by Ted Richards
  Auto Zoom 3000 No 246V, measured by Pontus Fred
  Zoom 3600 thyristor No 194V, measured by Ray Huttenmeister
  Auto Zoom 4000 No 200V, measured by Max Osmond
  Power Zoom 4000 AF Yes 3.6V, measured by Kees Dorsman
  MS-4000 monolight Yes 5.8V, measured by Alan Fairley
  4205G Yes(?) 3.75V, measured by Igor Wesdorp, (6.*V from Göran Samuelsson and Arnoud Brouwer)
  PZ5000AF Yes 5V, checked by “MikeTwo” thru ToCAD’s (Sunpak’s) own John Long
Topca 320BC No 100-105V measured by Martin Marusak
  330CX Yes 3.4V measured by Oto Durkovic
Toshiba ES-7 No 250V, measured by Anton Douwe
  QCC-25MD Your Call 11.4V, measured by Sean Phillips
  ES-30 Your Call 15V, measured by Ken Hardy
  312 Nope 197V, according to Göran Samuelsson
Tumax DS20S Yes (?) ~4-6V, measured by James K.W. Wong, who also received a mail from Tumax saying 6.8V!
  116 No 185V, measured by Kiriakos Triantafyllou
  988TWZ Your Call 7.6V from Woo Fei Wing
Unomat B14 Servo No 190V measured by “Alchi”
  B20C No 210V measured by Tom Mac Inerney
  320TCD No 34V measured by James Tom
  P360TCT No 160.3V measured by Luis Sousa
Vesta Auto 1200A No 25V measured by Louis Allard
Vivitar 100 No 270V, per Nigel Kirlew, and , 256V measured by Bambi Torres
  Auto Bounce 40D Your Call an oh-so-close 6.2V, per S. Ciccarelli, who’s happily using it on his Powershot G2
  AF-N 132, (Nikon) Yes ~4V, from Per G. Østerlie
  161 No ~60V per Howie Hecht
  Auto 215 No ~i198V per Steve Orton
  253 No 200V, from BigWaveDave
  255 No 284V, checked by Greg Sutton
  272 No 240V, checked by “RoyDM”
  273 No 290V, also from Nigel Kirlew
  283 NO (old versions), Your call (new versions) Older units have been reported as high as 600V!, Recent (post-‘87) revised 283’s (“Made in China”) are safer with modern cameras, running around 9-10V. Bob Atkins reports some as low as 5V. Recently units marked “Made in Korea” have also appeared… measured at 8v by Andrew Cassino and Tony Bonanno., Kevin Omura used a Quantum battery and got a hefty 261.4V out of his (sn3012330), while, Göran Samuelsson had two units with different voltages: 230V and 190V. Other reports have had similar variety, up to 270V.
  285 Your Call 7.45-7.8V, according to “Bob from,” Mike Dubbs, and “Steven at”, Peter Savage checked his 285 and 285HV units, and read only 6V., Mike Flaherty measured around 8.5V on his 15-year-old 285, and feels safe using it on his EOS D30., Older units may rate higher., One correspondent had three units ranging from 8.3V to 33V…,  , Alan Latafat Correa checked with Vivitar and they clarified:, The 285HV has a voltage of 12V. The 285 has a voltage of 350V. Hope this helps you., (Thanks Alan!)
  365 No 46V, according to Kevin Omura
  530FC Your Call 8.3V, according to Bob Thibodeau
  550FD Your Call 8V, according to Ted Felix —, only 4.24V, per Stephen Sugiyama, and, 5V per Timothy Horn (serial 0031524) — but, 6.66V from Rick Zotz, 7.5V from Tri Do, and, 10.18V (serial 5031715) by John D. Duvall…</b>
  560D Your Call 15V, according to Vivitar via John Faughnan
  Series One, 600 M/P/O (Minolta, Pentax, Olympus) Your Call 8.7V, measured by “Keoeeit”
  628AF Your Call 6.8V, according to Louis Carresi, using a Nikon shoe
  728AFC Yes 5.77V, per Petteri Luukkanen
  730AFC Yes 3.25-3.37V, per Neuz2U (Allen N)
  730AFM Yes 6V, checked w/Vivitar by Ashish Bhutada
  Series 1, 836AFC Your Call 3.6V, measured by Saul Gurdus
  1900 No 90V, measured by Samath Wije, 127.3V from Ted Coffey
  2000 No 54.4, measured by Greg Speth, but, 180V+ from Lou McLaughlin, who reports that Vivitar appears to have made completely different strobes with this same model number…., 202V from Chuck Roake too
  2500 Your Call 10.95V, measured by J. Mark Morris, 14.5V from Lou McLaughlin
  2600 No 148V, reported by Ted Felix
  2800 No? 140-170V, according to Bart Van Oudenhove, though Paul Durant reports his new one measured 20V., Dave Senciall says his G3 wouldn’t fire his 140V version,, and Jack Benson reported his 2800-D (same model?) returned only 4V…, & 33.6V, checked by Gunars Lucans
  3500 Yes(?) 6V, checked w/Vivitar by Bart Nathan, though Bart Daatselaar reported 9.1V from his —, Scott Slayman tried his with varying dedicated models and got varying voltages in the 4-7V range
  3700 Your call 9.1-9.4V, checked on four different units with a Fluke meter by Jim Sharp
  3900 Your call 9.9V, checked by Larry Wilson
  4600 Your call 19.5V, checked by Dave Grant
  4900 VT Yes 4.2V, checked by Wolfgang Kurth
  Macroflash 5000 Yes ~6V, checked by Jay Philippbar
  5200 Your call ~9.4V, checked by “Dr. Droo” Baxter
  5250 Yup 5-6V depending on the module, checked by Jeff Wiseman
  7600 Your Call 7.5V w/new batteries, measured by Dennis Yep
Voigtlander VC21B No 118V measured by “rjsch”
Wein Pro Sync 1, IR transmitter Your call 15.18V, measured by Sandy Levenberg, (Newer model is reputedly 6V)
  Pro Sync LX-2 Your call 10.36V, measured by Jan C. Doddy
  200 Flash No 122.7V measured Don Swanson
White Lightning All See listing under “Paul Buff”  
WOC WOC Yes 5V reported by Matt Dovner
Woctron (“WOC”?) 250 PC Auto Yes 5V reported by “Alex from Italy”
  2500 PC Yes 5.5V reported by Dmitrios Papadopoulos
Yashica CS-202 Your call 11V, reported by Mike Flynn
  CS-201 Auto Your call 11.9V, reported by “Mike from Sweden”
  CS-221 Auto Yes A wee 1.75V, reported by Ken Kane
  CS-240 Auto Your call 7.2V, reported by Andrzej Sosnowski

Useful Info From Lumedyne

We got a very informative note from D.J. LaDez, the GM at Lumedyne Inc:

You did not mention our Lumedyne flashes pre 1992 or so they had about 100volts with very low current. The current was so low, batteryless slaves wouldn't power up. Since 1992 we have used 12 volts with enough current to fire on all cameras and drive slave units. We do not know of anyone, including Canon EOS users, who have had damage from the 12 volt sync output.

Also keep in mind that the severely low rating on the sync voltage is while using the hot shoe on the camera, however the PC on advanced models usually has a much higher rating ( I believe it's 250 volts). Also keep in mind that product like our Sync Filter or the one I most often recommend is the Wein Safe Sync HS 6V. It is a hot shoe to PC adapter and limits the voltage of anything to 6 volts to the camera. Our Sync Filter is the #088E and is household to household connection for the same voltage but not at the camera, rather at the flash end when a household sync connection is used.

Thanks DJ!

Additional Comments From Nikon

Jeff MacWright found this post via

Warning: Negative voltages or voltages over 250 V applied to the camera's sync terminal could not only prevent normal operation, but may damage the sync circuit of the camera or flash. Check with the strobe manufacturer for voltage specifications

Thanks Jeff!

(This exact wording is also found in the manual of the Nikon Coolpix 5700)